The National Aboriginal Economic Development Board
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“Case studies that provide an in-depth and detailed understanding of how barriers to economic development on reserve affected economic opportunities in the Community of Membertou in Nova Scotia, Chippewas of Rama First Nation in Ontario, and the Osoyoos Indian Band in British Columbia. Each case study includes a review of a specific project, identifies the barriers to economic development encountered by the community during the development of the project, and – where possible – provides an assessment of the specific transaction costs incurred by communities to overcome the barriers.”
National Center for First Nation Governance (NCFNG)
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"Poverty is still the norm for most of Canada’s First Nations, despite ongoing efforts over many years to stimulate reserve economies, including significant investment by governments trying to ‘prime the economic pump’. There are, however, some good examples where the pattern has been changed and communities are breaking the chains of poverty. There are lessons to be learned from both within Canada and outside as to what can be done to alleviate poverty and stimulate economic growth.
"This report develops estimates of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) for reserves in Canada by estimating total earnings for reserves and multiplying these results by the national share of total earnings in income-based GDP. Two estimation approaches are used in the analysis. The first, which is the focus of this report, is a “top-down approach” based on provincial/territorial full year, full-time and part-year/part-time employment and average earnings data for the on-reserve Aboriginal population from the 2001 and 2006 Census.
"The goal of this report is to investigate the relationship between educational attainment, remoteness, and labour market and economic performance at the reserve level for Aboriginal Canadians. The report uses reserve-level data on average earnings, GDP per capita, labour market indicators and distance to a service centre for 312 reserves. Using descriptive statistics, simple correlation and multiple regression analysis, the report draws conclusion on four important questions.
"Has the labour market situation of Aboriginal people in Canada been improving over the last several years? This paper uses data from the 1996 and 2001 censuses to present comprehensive, factual answers to this question. The paper looks at two main indicators of labour market activity – unemployment and participation rates – past, present and future. It reviews the labour market position of Aboriginal people in comparison to the general population in the provinces and territories, in cities with large Aboriginal populations, and on and off reserve. "
"The objective of the Think Tank on Wealth Creation was to examine how wealth is created and how the journey of economic prosperity could be reached in a free market economy on reserve. What conditions and barriers exist that prevent the creation of wealth and prosperity? Inversely, what conditions must exist to build a meaningful and sustainable economy, especially absent from the creation and reliance on characteristics of dependency.
"Like immigrants, aboriginal populations' economic success may be enhanced by the acquisition of skills and traits appropriate to the "majority" culture in which they reside. Using 1991 Canadian Census data, we show that Aboriginal labour market success is greater for Aboriginals whose ancestors intermarried with non-Aboriginals, for those who live off Indian reserves, and for those who live outside the Yukon and Northwest Territories.
"After a review of the general characteristics of Aboriginal businesses on Canadian reserves, the empirical part of this research compares a sample of 22 on-reserve businesses interviewed within four reserves in Northern Ontario to a control sample of 229 businesses from across Northern Ontario. Both samples were surveyed in Spring/Summer 1997 by the Small Business Research Group, from Laurentian University's School of Commerce and Administration.
Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy
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"At one level, the story of Membertou First Nation is inspirational. But, this paper identifies some of the unique challenges and barriers faced by First Nations people pursuing opportunities as entrepreneurs. Challenges include issues of political stability; the need to respect the value placed upon community, conservation and sustainability by the culture the limited access to traditional sources of capital and other possible barriers.