“Aboriginal languages in Canada are at risk. Aboriginal communities that control their own schools often perceive schooling as a means of halting the erosion of language and restoring the viability of their culture. This is the story of such a process. The James Bay Cree live in nine communities, mostly along the east coast of James Bay. In December 1988, the Cree School Board commissioners decided to introduce a program of Cree as the language of instruction in elementary schools.