International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business (IJESB)
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"Throughout the middle decades of the 20th Century Indigenous people were the target of efforts to assist in economic development. In large part these externally developed, modernisation based efforts failed. In response, a second wave of Indigenous development has emerged; one in which Indigenous peoples are striving to rebuild their ‘nations’ and improve their lot through economic development ‘on their own terms’. Key to this approach is the pursuit by Indigenous people of the recognition of their rights to their traditional lands and resources.
Article describes how economic participation must be on their own terms and for their own purposes. Also, traditional lands, history, culture and values all play a critical role in economic development. In order to attempt to compete in the global economy on their own terms, Indigenous people are using all types of partnerships, both among themselves and with non-Indigenous enterprises. A case study of the Lac La Ronge Indian Band is used as they are recognized as one of the leaders in economic development in Canada.
International Research in the Business Disciplines
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"The first section of this chapter provides a description of the socioeconomic circumstances of Aboriginal people in Canada and the approach to improving these circumstances that began to emerge among them during the closing decades of the 20th Century. As that material shows, entrepreneurship has played a key role in the approach, and it will continue to do so. The second and third sections of the paper examine this approach in more depth.
"Indigenous people are struggling to reassert their nationhood within the post-colonial states in which they find themselves. Claims to their traditional lands and the right to use the resources of these lands are central to their drive to nationhood. Traditional lands are the ‘place’ of the nation and are inseparable from the people, their culture, and their identity as a nation.
Article includes a figure showing the Aboriginal approach to economic development, including the four purposes and three main processes. It also looks at whether the Aboriginal approach to development can deliver the results anticipated by the government (by 2016, Aboriginal people are projected to be making a $375 million contribution to the Canadian economy – as opposed to an estimated $11 billion cost should their circumstances remain as they were in 1996 relative to other Canadians – due to land claim settlements and other capacity-building activities by the government).
"This paper explores economic development and entrepreneurship in an Aboriginal context. The paper begins with an overview of the socioeconomic circumstances of the Aboriginal people in Canada. It then goes on to consider the approach that Aboriginal people have developed to address these circumstances and the outcomes they have achieved. Throughout, the emphasis is on the role of entrepreneurship and land claims/treaty rights in the development process."
"Carries out a statistical and economic analysis of socio-economic survey results on the Mi’kmaq People of Cape Breton in the light of the criterion of the social wellbeing function. Focuses on studying the social wellbeing criterion with the socio-economic variables involved in the surveys in a relational perspective among alternatives. Points out that this approach is distinct from the neoclassical resource substitution method. Instead, the relational perspective is shown to be premised on a system of universal complementarities."
"Undertakes a historico-theoretical study to outline the constitutional and developmental predicament of the Native Indian people in Canada against the hegemonic models instituted by the Federal Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development. Analyses a factual survey done by Statistics Canada to highlight the various kinds of socio-economic problems being faced by Native Indians and to point out the prospects before them. Recommends an ecological alternative in the light of the new land rights being signed between the Federal Government and the Native Indians in Canada.
"This report reviews the contexts within which Aboriginal co-operatives exist, considers the suitability of the co-operative model for what Aboriginal leaders say about the kind of economy they wish to encourage, and draws up the findings of eleven case studies to make a series of conclusions and recommendations about the potential for growth for co-operatives owned by Aboriginal peoples for their own purposes. "
"Again last year, the United Nations related Canada the best country in the world to live in. This assessment is based upon a country's Human Development Index. Even so, not everyone in Canada enjoys the advantages of living in a highly developed country. In November 1996 the Canadian government published the four-thousand-page, $58 million Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (RCAP 1996), a report that reviewed and made recommendations about a wide range of social and economic issues related to Canada's Aboriginal peoples.